句法学入门Introduction to Syntax

  • 刘康
  • Sophomore, Major in Linguistics & Minors in French and Computer Science, Pomona College

A. I ran the fuck into the gym.
这我觉得可以,大概意思就是“我TM用生命在狂奔,飕飕地跑进了健身房。”<B. *I ran the fuck in the gym.
???“*我在健身房TM跑步,肆意挥汗。”哪有人这么说话啦!
再看这句:
Beyoncé brought a gift to me, and
- Rihanna did, too.
很正常的省略句,一看就知道是在说“Rihanna brought a gift to me, too.”
- *Rihanna brought, too.
- *Rihanna will bring, too.
这两句读起来就相当奇怪,重复“brought”和使用过去时以外的时态都感觉不是很对。

所以这是为什么呢?为什么我们总能判断一个句子是否正确,无论基于语法还是源于我们难以描述的语感和直觉?为什么我们可以说turn on the lights和turn the lights on,却不能既说turn on the carpet又说turn the carpet on?我们将在这节句法学入门课程里学习、阅读、描述、拓展这样人人皆有又难以捉摸的语言知识。通过学习相关理论(Minimalist Program之前),重新勾勒英文、中文等诸多语言的语法,并以此了解如何进行严谨的科学研究、推理、和假设。本节课程为全英文教学,交互性强,融合interactive lecture和writing workshop。

This course examines the sentence structure of natural language, addressing the (mostly unconscious) knowledge that we all have of the structures of our native tongues. It explains, among other things, why you can turn on the lights, and turn on the carpet, but while you can turn the lights on, you can’t turn the carpet on. We clearly have mental expectations about what kinds of sentences count as “English” (or any other language) and what kinds do not: these expectations are a mental grammar. This course addresses puzzles about the grammar of human language and serves as an introduction to generative syntactic theory; we will also cover other topics as demonstrations of such syntactic and analytical approach to linguistics studies, such as the English expletive ‘the fuck,’ ellipsis, etc. The course emphasizes syntactic description and argumentation based on pre-Minimalist theories with a writing-centric curriculum, and is overall instructed in a rather interactive lecture setting.